by Sajad Abedi
Today, there are developments in the world that all turn on the heel of knowledge. If, in the past, military power, population, or strategic location and so on were considered to be the main factors in the power of a country, today, countries have been able to use the advancement of many levels of knowledge and technology these restrictions have exceeded their national strength in the international system and surpass their rivals. A country with strong knowledge and technology can be in a dominant position and influence the culture of other countries, thereby guaranteeing its national interests in the world and against other actors in the political and international arena.
Today, among the constant and strategic variables, knowledge is one of the main components of gaining power and raising the strategic status of a country. In the world, there has been an evolution in which all things turn around the heel of knowledge, and life is at the heart of science. All aspects of human life have become dependent on knowledge, so that nothing can be done and nothing of the essence of human life except the key of science. As a result, governments, political leaders, companies, and institutions at local, national and international levels try to increase their knowledge and intelligence in various sciences so that they can surpass their rivals. New terms such as information technology, communications technology, etc., are rooted in the importance of the phenomenon of production, collection, dissemination of knowledge and technology, the fate of nations, the production of power and authority, and increased international actors’ ability to form political, economic, cultural, technical, and other capabilities. From the past to today, a number of views have been presented on the power and contexts and motivations for gaining power by countries by experts in the field of international relations. Those who study international politics in terms of strength are significantly influenced by the views of (Hans Morgenthu). It describes international politics as a struggle for power, and believes that political power is a psychological relationship between those who exercise power or exercise power. In this regard, power is a relationship between actors (governments) and the politics, behavior, and actions of each state while struggling against the competition, based on knowledge of their position in relation to others, takes place. From another perspective, politics is the dominant distribution of values. Thus, in studying policy among governments, the main emphasis is on the distribution of power among them. The distribution of power in the international community is unequal, and each political unit tries to allocate more power than power. Accordingly, the demands and behaviors of the powerful and weak states in the international system are different in the international context. That is, stronger states, in the face of others, are able to maintain their independence, and have as much power as a large state; the same applies to the scope of its operation.
Meanwhile, in the international system, more powerful governments have more facilities and tools to maintain their own interests, and on the contrary, governments are weaker than more bargaining power. Geostrategic weight means the gravity of forces and the positive and negative factors affecting national power of a country. Geostrategic weight indicates the status of the country or its status among a set of countries or in the global and regional geostrategic system. Therefore, it has a direct relation with the geostrategic status of the country in the global and regional system, that is, the more this is weight, the greater the state’s prestige and public credibility among the other countries, the larger, the more equal and the more numerous, and the greater the degree of credit and dignity increase. As much as new opportunities for visible or invisible power to objectively and subjectively influence processes, decisions, actions and behaviors in different local and regional neighborhoods, and the country can gradually become a leader in management, processes and actions. A collective and political role to play the pivotal role. From the perspective of sociology in the modern age, technological knowledge as a social and cultural phenomenon that affects environmental conditions and in turn affects them is the most important component of power in the international arena. This, at the beginning of the modern era, was the context for the colonialism of non-European societies by the West, thanks to the European scientific and technological expertise, with its growing power. Today it is the sole factor behind the continuation of the dominance of the power of the West and of America in particular.
One of the factors influencing the geostrategic weight of a country is its ability to produce knowledge and technological know-how, and so on. A country with high knowledge and technology can steal from other rivals and maintain its national interest with its worldwide model. Science and knowledge at different levels of the individual, or social and national, give it the power, influence, impact, and passiveness of the opposite, and on the other hand, it leads to the production of dominant culture, which can be in a pattern of leadership and leadership to be placed for others. Therefore, the production of knowledge and knowledge at the level of society and the nation will enrich the national culture and insure its gradual and continuous growth up against other cultures and nations. Its rich culture itself surpasses the culture of weakness in terms of scientific and epistemological knowledge and places itself in the position of leadership, influence and influence on others, and seeks to generate political power for its progressive society and nation. The point about the underlying factors of power must be taken into account is the existence of a balance between the elements of power, since investing and over-emphasizing in one sector can lead to weakness and backwardness of other sectors, and the situation in long-term effects on national power. Strengthening the knowledge-based culture and training and training an effective and efficient workforce has played a significant role in raising the power of production and in strengthening the economy and diplomacy in the country’s foreign policy, which has led to the production of power and the bargaining power of countries in favor of national interests. A country that has high knowledge can better understand its position and maintain its own interests and act in dealing with other regional and transnational rivals from the position of power. Therefore, it can be concluded from the above that, unlike in the past, when military power, the population of a country and etc. an important factor in determining the national power of nations, today’s knowledge and technology have destroyed many of the limitations of the past and It gives the country a special prestige of technology and changes worldviews as a leader in science and knowledge.